Molecules involved in inflammation, such as interleukin-1 [IL-1], have been implicated in type 2 diabetes. This means that researchers at L&C'Aquila University and Catanzaro University in Italy want to know if existing drugs that reduce interleukin-1 are available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their research report was published in the journal in February 2019. from
Medicine [Baltimore] from
Those who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were receiving treatment with anakinra [Kinaret], a drug used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated with anakinra for active rheumatoid arthritis were observed for 6 months and compared with others taking different anti-arthritic drugs. At 3 and 6 months, people receiving anakinra treatment showed less insulin resistance and lower glucagon levels than those treated with other drugs. Insulin resistance leads to type 2 diabetes. Glucagon increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce sugar.
For adults, the standard dose of anakinra is 100 mg per day. Inject under the skin of the abdomen or thighs. It can alleviate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in four to six weeks, and the symptoms of other inflammatory diseases are faster…
- Redness, itching, rash, pain, bruises or bleeding can occur at the injection site, but the effect usually resolves after one to two weeks.
- Headache and white blood cell counts are reported to be low but not common.
The patient needs to be monitored for blood counts and observed for infection. More serious side effects include…
- Chest pain,
- Difficulty breathing,
- A swollen face, lips, tongue or throat.
Anakinra is also used to treat several other inflammatory diseases…
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- Calcium pyrophosphate deposition [pseudogout],
- Behcet disease,
- Ankylosing spondylitis,
- Still a disease, and
- Multi-system inflammatory disease of neonatal onset.
Interleukin-1 is not all bad. It involves immunity. It is part of a family of molecules known as cytokines that are involved in inflammation and immune regulation.
These two interleukin-1 are designated as…
- Alpha and
- Public beta.
They are produced in macrophages, a white blood cell and various other cells. Interleukin-1 increases body temperature, kills microinvaders and stimulates the production of interferons [an immune molecule] and several cells that contribute to the immune system. It is used against melanoma, various skin and kidney cancers.
We may have to learn to control the optimal amount of cytokines we need and turn them on and off at will.